Rama I ordered the immediate arrest of Nanthasen, and soon after he died in captivity. The Nithan Khun Borom or "Story of Khun Borom" recalls the origin myths of the Lao, and follows the exploits of his seven sons to found the Tai kingdoms of Southeast Asia. In the 14th century, the first Laotian state was founded, the Lan Xang kingdom, which ruled Laos until it split into three separate kingdoms in 1713. French colonial interests in Laos began with the exploratory missions of Doudart de Lagree and Francis Garnier during the 1860s. In 1547 the kingdoms of Lan Xang and Lanna were briefly unified under Photisarath of Lan Xang and his son Setthathirath in Lanna.  Otherwise, according to Martin Stuart-Fox, the Lao might well have lost control over their own country.. Laos is a country in transition and has set a goal of graduating from Least Developed Country status by 2020. Popular resentment against the forced tattooing and increased taxes became casus belli for rebellion. Its mission focus is border and internal security, primarily in internal suppression of Laotian dissident and opposition groups. Pavie and French auxiliaries arrived in Luang Prabang in 1887 in time to witness an attack on Luang Prabang by Chinese and Tai bandits who hoped to liberate the brothers of their leader Đèo Văn Trị, who were being held prisoner by the Siamese. In the north, Haripunjaya (Lamphun) emerged as a rival power to the Dvaravati. Since 2005, one such effort, The Middle Mekong Archaeological Project (MMAP) has excavated and surveyed numerous sites along the Mekong and its tributaries around Luang Prabang in northern Laos, with the goal of investigating early human settlement of the valleys of the Mekong River and its tributaries. In exchange Anouvong successfully made the case that his son be crowned as king in Champasak, which was confirmed by Bangkok. During the Reign of the Myanmar Monarchs, local police were formed under the Mayors and Village Headmen; and they were also the Military reserved personnel. Laos’s economic freedom score is 55.5, making its economy the 129th freest in the 2020 Index. From the 1830s through the 1860s small rebellions took place across Lao lands and the Khorat Plateau, but they lacked both the scale and coordination of the Anouvong Rebellion. The myths also recorded the laws of Khun Borom, which set the basis of common law and identity among the Lao. The Kingdom of Luang Prabang was the first of the regional kingdoms to emerge in 1707, when King Xai Ong Hue of Lan Xang was challenged by Kingkitsarat, the grandson of Sourigna Vongsa. In later centuries the Lao themselves would preserve the legend in written form, becoming one of the great literary treasures of Laos and one of the few depictions of life in Southeast Asia prior to Therevada Buddhism and Tai cultural influence.. Elections were held in 1955, and the first coalition government, led by Prince Souvanna Phouma, was formed in 1957. The small arms utilised mostly by the Laotian Army are the Soviet AKM assault rifle, PKM machine gun, Makarov PM pistol, and the RPD light machine gun. The second coalition government, once again led by Souvanna Phouma, was not successful in holding power. The first archaeological explorations of Laos began with French explorers acting under the auspices of the École française d'Extrême-Orient. Xai Ong Hue then turned toward the Kingdom of Ayutthaya for support, and an army was dispatched which rather than supporting Xai Ong Hue arbitrated the division between Luang Prabang and Vientiane. In 1975, with the end of the Indochina War, the Lao PDR was established. The network of alliances shifted with the political and military landscape throughout the latter half of the eighteenth century.. The Centre for Public Policy Analysis, CPPA, Washington, D.C. (1 August 2013), Businesswire, businesswire.com (4 March 2013) "Laos: Attacks Intensify Against Lao, Hmong People", Scoop Independent News, Auckland, New Zealand, (19 March 2013) "Laos Officials Criticized for Obstructing Investigation".  A 2016 mitochondrial genome mapping of Thai and Lao populations supports the idea that both ethnicities originate from the Tai–Kadai (TK) language family. From 1828 to 1830 over 66,000 people were forcibly relocated from Vientiane. The tallest jars are more than 3 m (9.8 ft) in height. A joint commission completed its work in 1896 and the city of Muang Sing was gained by France; in exchange France recognized Siamese sovereignty over the areas of the Chaophraya River basin. The LPA also has reportedly upgraded skills to respond to avian influenza outbreaks. French colonial presence in Laos was light; the Resident Superieur was responsible for all colonial administration from taxation to justice and public works. "The French in Laos, 1887–1945. Overall, the country extends about 650 miles (1,050 km) from northwest to southeast.  Tai speaking tribes migrated southwestward along the rivers and over the lower passes into Southeast Asia, perhaps prompted by the Chinese expansion and suppression. The budget for colonial Laos was secondary to Hanoi, and the worldwide Great Depression further restricted funds. 260 million cluster bombs were dumped on Laos from 1964 to 1973, and thousands of ‘unexploded ordinances’ still litter the countryside, killing or injuring over 100 people every year. , An early tradition is discernible in the Hoabinhian, the name given to an industry and cultural continuity of stone tools and flaked cobble artifacts that appears around 10,000 BP in caves and rock shelters first described in Hòa Bình, Vietnam and later also in Laos. , According to numerous independent journalists and non-governmental organisations (NGOs), including Amnesty International, Human Rights Watch, The Centre for Public Policy Analysis, Lao Human Rights Council, United League for Democracy in Laos and humanitarian and human rights organisations, the Lao People's Army has repeatedly engaged in egregious human rights violations and the practice of corruption in Laos. In 1812 Siam and Vietnam were at odds over the succession of the Cambodian king, the Vietnamese gained the upper hand with their chosen successor and Siam compensated itself by annexing territory on the Dangrek Mountains and along the Mekong River in Stung Treng. Larger tribes of Lao Theung, such as the Brao, would conduct slave raids against weaker tribes. Dated to between 46,000 and 63,000 years old, it is the oldest fossil found in the region that bears modern human morphological features. The sons would become successive kings of Vientiane (under Siamese suzerainty), beginning with Nanthasen in 1781. The Lao People’s Democratic Republic (Lao PDR) is a land-locked, ethnically diverse and mountainous country with an estimated population at 6.8 million. In 1904 Britain and France signed the Entente Cordiale, which developed ultimately into part of the alliance against Germany and Austria-Hungary that fought the First World War in 1914–1918. Charles Rochet the French Director of Public Education in Vientiane, and Lao intellectuals led by Nyuy Aphai and Katay Don Sasorith began the Movement for National Renovation. International Institute for Strategic Studies (IISS) (2010). The Lao People's Democratic Republic, officially called Laos is neither democratic nor for the people. Following the death of the Sukhothai king Ram Khamhaeng, and internal disputes within the kingdom of Lanna, both Vieng Chan Vieng Kham (Vientiane) and Xieng Dong Xieng Thong (Luang Prabang) were independent city-states until the founding of the kingdom of Lan Xang in 1354. As a result, 53% of the population of Vientiane, 85% of Thakhek and 62% of Pakse were Vietnamese, with only an exception of Luang Phrabang where the population was predominantly Lao. Throughout the 1760s and 1770s the kingdoms of Siam and Burma competed against each other in a bitter armed rivalry, and sought out alliances with the Lao kingdoms to strengthen their relative positions by adding to their own forces and denying them to their enemy. Lan Xang existed as a unified kingdom from 1357 to 1707, divided into the three rival kingdoms of Luang Prabang, Vientiane, and Champasak from 1707 to 1779, fell to Siamese suzerainty from 1779 to 1893, and was reunified under the French Protectorate of Laos in 1893. The history of forced population transfers, corvee labor projects, loss of national symbols and prestige (most notably the Emerald Buddha) formed the backdrop to specific actions taken by Rama III to directly annex the Isan region. Lan Xang existed as a sovereign kingdom for over 350 years. Hunting and gathering remained an important aspect of food provision; particularly in forested and mountainous inland areas. Also known as the "Land of a million elephants under the white parasol" the kingdom's name alludes to the power of the kingship and formidable war machine of the early kingdom. Laos is in the process of implementing a value-added tax system. It is instead a Marxist–Leninist one-party dictatorship that successfully took Laos from being a dirt poor post-colonial state to a dirt poor communist state in the present day. , The earliest inhabitants of Laos – Australo-Melanesians – were followed by members of the Austro-Asiatic language family. This page was last edited on 16 December 2020, at 19:47. In 1914 the Tai Lu king had fled to the Chinese portions of the Sipsong Panna, where he began a two-year guerilla campaign against the French in northern Laos, which required three military expeditions to suppress and resulted in direct French control of Muang Sing. Bayinnaung subjugated the Kingdom of Lanna and went on to destroy the kingdom and city of Ayutthaya in 1564. Laos depended heavily on Soviet aid channeled through Vietnam up until the Soviet collapse in 1991. Beginning in 1707 the Lao kingdom of Lan Xang was partitioned into regional kingdoms of Vientiane, Luang Prabang and later Champasak (1713). As part of French Indochina both Laos and Cambodia were seen as a source of raw materials and labor for the more important holdings in Vietnam. By 1915 most of northeast Laos was controlled by Chinese and Lao Theung rebels. Phibunsongkhram renamed Siam to Thailand, a name change which was part of a larger political movement to unify all Tai peoples under the central Thai of Bangkok. The French were aware that the east-bank territories of the Mekong were "a depopulated, devastated country" - the Siamese forced population transfers following the Anouvong Rebellion had left only a fifth of the original population on the east bank, the majority of Lao Loum and Phuan peoples had been resettled to the areas around the Khorat Plateau. The government appears committed to raising the country's profile among foreign investors and has developed special economic zones replete with generous tax incentives, but a limited labor pool, a small domestic market, and corruption remain impediments to investment. 1884-1945 Before the establishment of the Cambodia National Police in 1945, Khmer people with France did the policing to strengthen security and social order. , 1945 was a watershed year in the history of Laos, under Japanese pressure King Sisavangvong declared independence in April. The United League for Democracy in Laos, Amnesty International, the Centre for Public Policy Analysis, the Lao Veterans of America and other NGOs continue to raise … For National Police Week, a brief history of policing in the U.S. and how societal changes shaped the evolution of the force. Anatomically modern human hunter-gatherer migration into Southeast Asia before 50,000 years ago has been confirmed by the fossil record of the region. It was not until 1899 that Laos became centrally administered by a single Resident Superieur based in Savannakhet, and later in Vientiane. Siam reacted by denying French trading interests, which by 1893 had increasingly involved military posturing and gunboat diplomacy. About 80% of the Laotian population are subsistence rice farmers. , Limitations and current state of research, Colonialism and the French Protectorate of Laos (1893–1953), The Kingdom of Laos and the Lao Civil War (1953–1975), The Lao People's Democratic Republic (1975–present), Baker, Chris and Phongpaichit, Pasuk (2017).  These earliest human migrants are Australo-Melanesians — associated with the Hoabinhian culture and have populated the highlands and the interior, less accessible regions of Laos and all of South-east Asia to this day. Commercial, administrative, family, investment, criminal, property, foreign investment, business & contract. Laos - Government.  In the 1040s, a powerful matriarch-shamaness by the name of A Nong, her chiefly husband, and their son, Nong Zhigao, raised a revolt, took Nanning, besieged Guangzhou for fifty seven days, and slew the commanders of five Chinese armies sent against them before they were defeated, and many of their leaders were killed. In 1960 Captain Kong Le staged a coup when the cabinet was away at the royal capital of Luang Prabang and demanded reformation of a neutralist government. By 1779 General Taksin had driven the Burmese from Siam, had overrun the Lao Kingdoms of Champasak and Vientiane, and forced Luang Prabang to accept vassalage (Luang Prabang had aided Siam during the siege of Vientiane).  In 726, after the suppression of a rebellion by a 'Lao' leader in the present-day Guangxi, over 30,000 rebels were captured and beheaded. Villages remained under the traditional authority of the local headmen or chao muang. Laos is a landlocked country, sandwiched between China (north), Cambodia (south), Vietnam (east) and Thailand (west). Setthathirath would go on to become the king of Lan Xang on the death of his father, and become one of the greatest kings of Lan Xang. From 1353 to 1560 the capital of Lan Xang was Luang Prabang (known alternately as Muang Sua and Xieng Dong Xieng Thong). Some sites contain more than 250 individual jars. British control of the Shan States and French control of the upper Mekong increased tensions between the colonial rivals. , Subsequent Neolithic immigration waves are considered dynamic, very complex and are intensely debated. Laos exists in truncated form from the thirteenth century Lao kingdom of Lan Xang. , The first indigenous kingdom to emerge in Indochina was referred to in Chinese histories as the Kingdom of Funan and encompassed an area of modern Cambodia, and the coasts of southern Vietnam and southern Thailand since the 1st century CE. In 1893 these tributary missions from Luang Prabang were used by the French as part of a legal argument for all the territories on the east bank of the Mekong. Laos - Laos - The Lao People’s Democratic Republic: The politics of the newly established republic were guided by the Lao People’s Revolutionary Party (LPRP; called the Lao People’s Party until 1972), the communist party of Laos. The Burmese Toungoo Dynasty began a series of expansions during the late 1550s which culminated under King Bayinnaung. , Human rights violations committed by the Lao military include kidnapping, rape, torture, extrajudicial killing, military attacks against civilians, mass starvation against the ethnic minority, Hmong people, illegal logging in co-operation with the Vietnam People's Army-owned front companies and other violations of international law, the Geneva conventions, and acceptable norms of behaviour. The Military history of Laos has been dominated by struggles against stronger neighbours, primarily Thailand and Vietnam, from at least the 18th century. Throughout the colonial administration in Laos the French presence never amounted to more than a few thousand Europeans. ", In 2013, attacks by the Lao People's Army against the Hmong people and others intensified, with soldiers killing four unarmed Hmong school teachers in addition to engaging in other human rights abuses according to the Lao Human Rights Council, the Centre for Public Policy Analysis and others. The first archaeological explorations of Laos began with French explorers acting under the auspices of the École française d'Extrême-Orient. #23 sayadian has been a member since 15/1/2008. Forced population transfers from Lao areas were further reinforced by corvee labor projects and increased taxes. In the aftermath of Vientiane's destruction the Siamese divided the Lao lands into three administrative regions. Militia self-defence forces number approximately 100,000 organised for local defence. In January hostilities commenced, and the Lao armies were sent from Vientiane to capture Nakhon Ratchasima, Kalasin, and Lomsak. At present, there is no major perceived external threat to the state and the LPA maintains very strong ties with the neighbouring Vietnamese military (2008). As a result, the use of competing alliances would further militarize the conflict between the northerly Lao kingdoms of Luang Prabang and Vientiane. The Laotian security forces were divided into several 'branches of service', which comprised a plainclothes criminal investigation department, an immigration service, an urban constabulary, a regional gendarmerie and an counter-insurgency armed support unit. The commissioner and his troops were massacred and a general uprising began throughout the Bolaven Plateau. Anouvong is a symbolic and controversial figure even today, his short lived rebellion against Siam from 1826–1829 ultimately proved futile and led to the total annihilation of Vientiane as a kingdom and a city, yet among the Lao he remains a potent symbol of unyielding defiance and national identity. The aim of the policy was to more tightly administer Lao territories from Bangkok and was facilitated by the nobility Siam had installed in the newly created cities throughout the region. The Franco-Lao General Convention of 1949 provided most members of the Lao Issara with a negotiated amnesty and sought appeasement by establishing the Kingdom of Laos a quasi-independent constitutional monarchy within the French Union. The Republic became independent when French Indochina was dissolved in 1954. Although the Mekong is unnavigable due to a number of rapids, the hope was that the river might be tamed with the help of French engineering and a combination of railways. Before returning to Vientiane, Anouvong’s son Ngau, the crown prince, was forced to perform manual labor during which he was beaten. Many of the reforms took place to more closely administer and assimilate the Khorat Plateau(or Isan) which was traditionally and culturally part of the Lao kingdoms’ tributary networks. Recent research also supports more accurate understanding of migration patterns of early humans, who migrated in successive waves moving west to east following the coastlines, but also used river valleys further inland and further north than previously theorized. Importantly, at the end of each rebellion Siamese troops would return to their administrative centers, and no Lao region was allowed to have a buildup of force which could have been used in rebellion.. From the instability the Khmer emerged. Prison Records. Yet northeastern Laos was still not entirely pacified and a Hmong shaman named Pa Chay Vue attempted to establish a Hmong homeland through a rebellion (pejoratively termed the Madman's War) which lasted from 1919 to 1921. French interest in indigenous history served a dual purpose in Laos it reinforced the image of the colonial mission as protection against Siamese domination, and was also a legitimate route for scholarship.. The rebel groups became known by their banners and included the Yellow (or Striped) Flags, Red Flags and the Black Flags. The History Of Policing And Race In The U.S. Are Deeply Intertwined NPR's Michel Martin speaks with professor Keisha Blain about the history of policing in the United States. The new communist government led by Kaysone Phomvihane imposed centralized economic decision-making and incarcerated many members of the previous government and military in "re-education camps" which also included the Hmongs. With a population of fewer than seven million people, Laos is a small country with a big footprint. In late 1831 Siam and Vietnam had a series of wars (Siamese-Vietnamese War 1831–1834, and Siamese-Vietnamese War 1841–1845) over control of Xieng Khouang and Cambodia. Thai and Vietnamese histories record that Anouvong rebelled as the result of personal insult suffered at the funeral of Rama II in Bangkok. The government's policies prompted about 10 percent of the Lao population to leave the country.  The Tai peoples, from Guangxi and northern Vietnam began moving south – and westwards in the first millennium CE, eventually spreading across the whole of mainland Southeast Asia. Laos Table of Contents. BTR-60s have been seen in service as recently as January 2019. 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