New Zealand's involvement in Vietnam was highly controversial and attracted protest and condemnation at home and abroad. New Zealand certainly saw the fighting in Cold War terms. New Zealand Protest. Of the 37 on the list, 20 of those were RNZAF personnel whom served as attachments to various units of the United States Air Force, as Forward air controllers. New Zealand’s military strength in Vietnam reached a peak of 548 in 1968. Meet the NZHistory.net.nz team, New Zealand gunners loading L5 Howitzer into APC.  On this tour Mortar and Assault Pioneer Sections were added to each of the New Zealand companies. Both companies served in the 1st Australian Task Force in Nui Dat, Phuoc Tuy Province. During the first Indo-China War (1946-1954) between the communist-dominated Viet Minh and France, New Zealand accepted the British-American view that Vietnam was a crucial point on the front line against communist expansion in Asia. The end of t… Initially Whisky Company served under operational control of 3rd Battalion, Royal Australian Regiment (3RAR) which arrived at the same time as Whisky Company, while Victor 2 Company continued to serve under 2nd Battalion, Royal Australian Regiment (2RAR. In terms of national security, our combat involvement represented the culmination of a line of official thinking based on the ANZUS alliance, the perceived dangers of Asian communism, and the commitment to forward defence in South-East Asia. The lesson includes an information sheet and grid to complete as well as a complete power point. In recent years, there has been greater official sensitivity to these concerns. From 1960, insurgents from the communist-dominated National Liberation Front – dubbed ‘Viet Cong’ in the south – fought a guerrilla campaign against a South Vietnamese regime that was now led by Ngo Dinh Diem. In the early 1970s, anti-Vietnam war groups organised 'mobilisations', when thousands marched in protest against the war in all the country's major centres. , Under continuing American pressure, the government agreed during 1963 to provide a small non-combatant military force, but the deteriorating political situation in Saigon led to delays. On the same day of their arrival, a small headquarters unit established in Saigon. In 2006, the New Zealand government signed a Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) with Vietnam veterans and their families. , In 2019 the Australian government awarded the Australian Unit Citation for Gallantry to all members of 161 Battery for their part in the Battle of Coral-Balmoral. , When 161 Battery, RNZA arrived in Vietnam in 1965 a detachment of engineers from the Royal New Zealand Electrical and Mechanical Engineers formed the Logistic Support Element (LSE), to service the battery. , Five members from various branches of the New Zealand military whom had also trained as Army pilots served with the Australian 161st Independent Reconnaissance Flight.. New Zealand's initial response was carefully considered and characterised by Prime Minister Keith Holyoake's cautiousness towards the entire Vietnam question. Another source of bitterness has been the sense that, unlike Second World War veterans, they did not receive adequate recognition for their professional service in a demanding theatre of operations. From 1966, New Zealand units were integrated within the 1st Australian Task Force at Nui Dat in Phuoc Tuy province. Forward Observers for the battery would patrol with all infantry companies of the Australian and New Zealand infantry while on operations, as they did with American infantry while the battery was under the 173rd, to direct artillery support when called upon. Includes some footage of Tim Shadbolt in rare form. 161 Battery was initially under command of the United States Army's 173rd Airborne Brigade for the first 12 months based at Bien Hoa near Saigon. The New Zealand headquarters established in Saigon in 1964 was renamed "Headquarters Vietnam Force" (HQ V Force) on 2 July 1965. The first Victor Company served a 6-month tour of duty. GST): $70.00 Extent: 416 pages Format: Flexibind ISBN: 978-0-9941460-4-5 Buy this book here(link is external) For a small, peaceful democracy in the South Pacific, New Zealand has had its fair share of major protest issues, and over the decades New Zealanders have become adept at mobilising around causes. The anti-Vietnam War protests are often regarded as the beginning of the ANZUS alliance breakdown between New Zealand and the United States.  The second was Operation Townsville (20 March – 23 April 1970) which resulted in Victor Company finding the headquarters of the main Viet Cong supply group and capturing the operational signals codes and one-time cipher pads used by the Viet Cong headquarters. New Zealand service personnel and civilian volunteers were in the jungles, skies, hospital wards, training camps, ... On operations. New Zealand focused its defence strategy on ‘forward defence’ in Asia – an attempt to keep communism as far away from its shores as possible.  This tour continued to be focused mainly upon the "Pacification" program which 1 ATF had adopted as its first priority in April 1969. It also upheld New Zealand's national interests of countering communism in South-East Asia. The end of this conflict coincided with a significant change in New Zealand’s approach to regional security. , Two small RNZAF detachments were attached to U.S Marine Corps A-4 Skyhawk squadron VMA-311 at Chu Lai Air Base in January 1970 and October 1970. The New Zealanders relieved a United States Army medical team at Bong Son in Bình Định Province. This was the first war in which New Zealand did not fight alongside its traditional ally, Great Britain. Thirty-seven men died while on active service and 187 were wounded. 37 New Zealand serviceman, mostly Commissioned Officers are recorded on the Flinkenberg List as having served with U.S detachments during the war. While firmly committed to the Western Allies' policy of containing the Soviets, it was reluctant to become involved in Vietnam. The majority of 4 RAR/NZ withdrew from Nui Dat to Vũng Tàu on 7 November 1971. Comments will be reviewed prior to posting. While National continues to support a stronger alliance with the United States, the anti-war protests convince the Labour government that a new and more independent New Zealand foreign policy is needed. 10 members from RNZAC served with the 3rd Cavalry Regiment, Royal Australian Armoured Corps. This team also provided first aid instruction and specialist medical instruction at Dong Ba Thin's 50-bed hospital. Additionally, RNZIR personnel served in administrative roles at the New Zealand HQ V Force in Saigon, in support and logistic roles within the ANZAC Battalions at Nui Dat, and in the 1st Australian Logistics Support Group (1 ALSG. 1975 - The first reunion of New Zealand Vietnam veterans was held. New Zealand Prime Minister K.J. 1969: Flour bombs, paint and eggs thrown in protest over a visit of a high-ranking United States politician. New Zealand troops are quickly withdrawn without much controversy after the Labour Party's return to office in 1972. From 1967, Royal New Zealand Air Force (RNZAF) pilots flew helicopters with 9 Squadron Royal Australian Air Force, while others operated as forward air controllers with the United States Air Force. 3 Squadron RNZAF served with No. 1 NZATTV was made up of advisors from all branches of service, a number of whom had served in the RNZIR companies and in other New Zealand branches of service. New Zealand has seen many demonstrations, strikes, marches and campaigns by protesters voicing opinions against wars, laws and events. Crown apology to Viet Nam veterans, 2008 (NZ Government), 2006 Memorandum of Understanding (Department of Internal Affairs), Vietnam War 1962-1972 (Australian War Memorial). Publication date: November 2019 NZ RRP (incl. The gunners were noted for their key role in assisting the 6th Battalion, Royal Australian Regiment, during the Battle of Long Tan, in which 18 Australians were killed holding off a regimental sized enemy force on 18 August 1966. They also triggered a backlash. All who served were regulars, or personnel who enlisted in the Regular Force in order to join V Force. One of the first acts of Prime Minister Norman Kirk's Labour Party government (elected in December 1972) was to withdraw both training teams and the New Zealand headquarters in Saigon. While Prime Minister Holyoake and his government had their own misgivings about the viability of the war, they were consistent in their public belief that they were maintaining both New Zealand's foreign policy principles and treaty-bound obligations. Click here for a full list of resources related to New Zealand's Vietnam War. Holyoake was reluctant to commit troops and was drawn into the Vietnam War due to the pressure from America to uphold the ANZUS and SEATO treaty’s, which had been signed in 1951 and 1954. A plaque and memorial to Sgt Watt is on display at the Ohakea Base Medical flight, and there is also the "Gordon Watt Memorial Award" for the RNZAF’s top medic award, named in his honour. Protest movements in New Zealand against the Vietnam War divided society between those who were in support of New Zealand’s involvement and those who thought New Zealand had no place in the war. In July 1967 President Lyndon B. Johnson sent two of his principal advisers, Clark Clifford and Gen. Maxwell Taylor, to Australia and New Zealand with an urgent mission. 1831901 On 27 May 1965 Holyoake announced the government's decision to send 161 Battery, Royal New Zealand Artillery to South Vietnam in a combat role. Perhaps you have a related experience you would like to share? From protest about war – be it the New Zealand Wars, the Great War, the Vietnam War or the invasion of Iraq – to trade union action, protests against aparthei… The gunners joined an Australian field regiment, the infantrymen formed part of an Anzac battalion and the SAS served with an Australian SAS squadron. In early 1966, the escalation of the war in Vietnam continued. At its peak in 1968, New Zealand’s military force numbered only 548. In New York City, protesters paraded and held a rally in Central Park.  Two New Zealanders serving with the United States Marine Corps, one serving in the US Army and one serving with the Australian Army were also killed in action..  These were not always formal postings as such. The Vietnam War had several social effects in New Zealand. , Over the five-year period, more than 1,600 New Zealand soldiers of the nine NZ rifle companies engaged in a constant round of jungle patrols, ambushes, and cordon-and-search operations in both battalion and independently conducted operations, for a loss of 24 killed and 147 wounded.. For those who served in Vietnam, the war left a searing legacy. It would be the last New Zealand Government agency to withdraw from Vietnam. , Members of the Royal New Zealand Corps of Signals served in all New Zealand units in Vietnam, including RNZA, RNZIR, NZSAS, V Force HQ and as part of the NZ Component at Nui Dat. In 1967 two RNZAF pilots were seconded to the Royal Australian Air Force's No. Extensive protest over the police handling of the investigation. The Vietnam War marked a turning point in the evolution of New Zealand's post-war foreign and security policies. This conflict was also the first in which New Zealand did not fight alongside the United Kingdom, instead following the loyalties of the ANZUS Pact. In 1969 Labour declared that they would withdraw New Zealand troops from Vietnam if elected, despite their … The last NZ Troops left Vietnam on 22 December 1972. The Royal New Zealand Armoured Corps was not represented as its own unit in Vietnam and members instead served within other New Zealand and Australian units including 161 Bty RNZA, V Force HQ, the ANZAC Battalions (Command and Support), the RNZIR companies, 1 ALSG, and in the NZAATV teams. Surgical and medical support. ), Two RNZAC pilots served with the Australian 161st (Independent) Reconnaissance Flight.. The outcome of the war prompted New Zealand to re-evaluate its alliance policy – most notably the forward defence strategy. Keith Holyoake and US President Lyndon B. Johnson. New Zealand Vietnam veterans, like their Australian and American counterparts, had to adjust to various consequences of fighting in an unpopular war.  Two RNZE sappers were killed while serving with the RNZIR infantry companies. The team worked for civilians at the Binh Dinh Province Hospital, in Qui Nhon, an overcrowded, and dirty facility almost completely lacking equipment and bedding. New Zealand society was changed politically as a direct consequence of the anti-Vietnam War movement through its transformation of the Labour Party and change in foreign policy. New techniques. 9 Squadron RAAF flying Bell UH-1 Huey helicopters which was based in Vung Tau.. Sailors from the HMNZS Taranaki in the foreground, with police and anti Vietnam war protesters, at the opening of Parliament in Wellington, in 1969. (The Vietnam War had spilled over into neighbouring Cambodia in 1970.). It makes up part of a broader study into the causes, events and consequences of the Vietnam War. , From 1965 the Royal New Zealand Air Force contribution was in the form of transportation with No. RNZAF transport aircraft supported New Zealand forces in Vietnam throughout the war. , Each time New Zealand military contribution to South Vietnam increased, a work party of the Corps of Royal New Zealand Engineers was sent to assist in preparing the site for the new arrivals. On 16 July 1965, they fired their first shells near Saigon (now Ho Chi Minh City). By the latter stages of the war, the anti-war movement had merged with other major causes – women's rights, the anti-apartheid movement – to spawn what some termed the ‘Vietnam Generation’. Prime Minister Holyoake said in 1971 that New Zealand's combat forces would be withdrawn by "about the end of this year," and they were – Whiskey Three Company went in November 1970, the SAS Troop and 161 Battery followed in February and May 1971 respectively, and Victor Six Company and the tri-service medical team left with the 1st Australian Task Force in December 1971, ending New Zealand's combat involvement in the Vietnam War. The lesson fits in with the new GCSE AQA specification, but could be used for other exam boards. We were the first mass movement against a war in American … These RNZE Detachments helped set up the NZ artillery battery when it moved to Nui Dat in September 1966 and again for Victor One Company RNZIR from early November to December 1967. The 2IC was filled by RNZIR Officer, Major Robert Ian Thorpe.. Tell me more... 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Two more RNZAF pilots joined No. Some RNZEME personnel served in the RNZIR rifle companies, the ANZAC Battalions (Command & Support), as well as at the New Zealand V Force HQ in Saigon. Parade 1998, a national reunion in Wellington in June 1998, received government assistance. The first was Operation Marsden (3–28 December 1969) in which Victor 3 Company discovered the major part of the K76A Hospital in the mountains where local enemy headquarters were located and from which the hospital was the major provider of medical services to all communist forces in the area. In line with reductions in American and Australian strength in Vietnam, New Zealand began the gradual withdrawal of its combat forces as the training teams were arriving. During the first Indo-China War (1946-1954) between the communist-dominated Viet Minh and France, New Zealand accepted the British-American view that Vietnam was a crucial point on the front line against communist expansion in Asia. Backed by Ho Chi Minh’s North Vietnamese, the Viet Cong posed a serious threat to the southern government, which the United States increasingly bolstered with military and economic assistance. More than 3000 New Zealand military and civilian personnel served in Vietnam between 1963 and 1975. While the anti-war movement had little impact on New Zealand foreign policy, it did cause the National government to mount a detailed public defence of its stance on Vietnam. RNZEME personnel who had been in the LSE were taken for the most part into the Light Aid Detachment (LAD) of the Australian Artillery Field Regiment which 161 Bty was integrated with..  Overall there were 98 personnel involved over the four-and-a-half years of the Team’s deployment: 47 from the Army, 27 from the Air Force and 24 from the Navy. New Zealand protests were similar to those in the United States– criticising the policies of the United States government and challenging seriously for the first time New Zealand's alliance-based security, calling for a more 'independent' foreign policy which was not submissive to that of the United States and denying that com… Upon the formation of 1st Australian Task Force at Nui Dat, in Phuoc Tuy Province in June 1966, the New Zealand government was given the choice of allowing the battery to remain at Bien Hoa with the 173rd Airborne under U.S command or integrate with the Australian forces. From 1961, New Zealand came under pressure from the United States of America to contribute military and economic assistance to South Vietnam, but refused. Rest and recreation. The protests mark a split in foreign policies between the two major political parties of Labour and National. 1967: On 29 October, a big fight between police and protesters occurs outside the home of the American consul at Paritai Drive in Auckland. , The two New Zealand training teams were withdrawn from Vietnam in December 1972.. Anti-war slogans w… , 161 Battery RNZA was awarded the United States Meritorious Unit Commendation for their service in South Vietnam while serving under the U.S 173rd Airborne Brigade. Over 20 RNZAF personnel served with a variety of U.S Air Force units as Forward Air Controllers, and a number of pilots and crew from No. This topic covers the anti-war protests, defence forces, action in Vietnam, apology from the Crown, compensation for veterans and refugees from Vietnam. Even so, there was a vocal and well-organised anti-war movement in New Zealand. In May 1968 Victor 2 was replaced by Victor 3. This funding went to several mobile health teams to support refugee camps, the training of village vocational experts, to medical and teaching equipment for Hue University, equipment for a technical high school and a contribution toward the construction of a science building at the University of Saigon. The 2IC for the final ANZAC Battalion rotation was RNZIR Major Donald Stuart McIver.. The book New Zealand's Vietnam War by Ian McGibbon, published in 2010, completed the project of official war histories begun in 1945 and focuses on what New Zealand did in south Vietnam.. The protests against the Vietnam War were a series of demonstrations against American involvement in the conflict between North and South Vietnam.  The MoU provides formal acknowledgement of the toxic environment New Zealand Vietnam Veterans faced during their service abroad in Vietnam, and the after-effects of that toxin since the servicemen and women returned to New Zealand. The administration of the subsequent New Zealand forces was managed here involving military personnel from all New Zealand branches of service including Military Police. Protests against the Vietnam War did not start when America declared her open involvement in the war in 1964.America rallied to the call of the commander-in-chief and after the Gulf of Tonkin incident it became very apparent that few would raise protests against the decision to militarily support South Vietnam. The extensive US bombing campaigns were a focal point for protesters, with anti-Vietnam war groups organising mobilisations against the war in major towns and cities. The Vietnam War. This web feature was originally adapted from Roberto Rabel's entry in The Oxford companion to New Zealand military history and produced by the NZHistory.net.nz team.  The last RNZAF flight out from Vietnam was the evacuation of the New Zealand Ambassador in April 1975, just before the Fall of Saigon. The protest movement is backed by Norman Kirk's Labour government which supports a prompt withdrawal of New Zealand troops. With substantial forces stationed in Malaysia (in Confrontation with Indonesia from 1963), New Zealand had few military resources to spare for Vietnam without introducing conscription. Several members served as tank crew with the 3rd Cavalry Regiment of the Royal Australian Armoured Corps, and 1st Squadron, 4th Cavalry Regiment (U.S Army. While National continued to accept the need for 'forward defence' and regional alliances, Labour leaders advocated new thinking in foreign policy to allow New Zealand to follow a more independent course in world affairs. They knew better than anyone else the horrors of war, post-traumatic stress disorder, health problems caused by agent orange and other chemicals. Not all comments posted. Few New Zealanders waved placards in the streets in 1965, but by the end of the decade thousands were marching against the war. The government preferred minimal involvement, with other South East Asian deployments already placing a strain on New Zealand's armed forces. Protests were initially peaceful and included sit-ins or teach-ins or marches, but they eventually erupted into violence. The team assisted an American training team in Chi Lang[disambiguation needed] to train South Vietnamese platoon commanders in weapons and tactics. Some of these attachments were planned as part of officers' career planning by Defence Headquarters; others were opportunity attachments through contact with Allied commanders at many levels. Anti-Vietnam War protests in Auckland nzhistory.govt.nz. The Royal New Zealand Army Ordnance Corps did not contribute a standalone unit to Vietnam but provided individuals to serve in various Australian and New Zealand units. Despite New Zealand’s modest military involvement in the Vietnam War, the conflict created enormous political and public debate at home about New Zealand’s foreign policy and place in the world. Explore activists and protests like Bastion Point, The Land March and the 1981 Springbok tour. Most operations in Phuoc Tuy were regular patrols or cordon and search operations. 9 Squadron in 1968 to fly helicopters, often in support of the Australian and New Zealand SAS. Following the end of the Indonesia–Malaysia Confrontation, New Zealand came under renewed pressure from Washington to expand its commitment in Vietnam. The struggle in Vietnam was part of a broader Cold War between the communist bloc headed by the Soviet Union and its former wartime allies in the West. Based at Dong Ba Thin, near Cam Ranh Bay, it helped train Cambodian battalions.  The surgical team was initially made up of seven men and would eventually grow to sixteen, and remained in the country until 1975. , In December 2006, the New Zealand Government, the Ex-Vietnam Services Association (EVSA) and the Royal New Zealand Returned and Services Association (RNZRSA) agreed to, and signed, a Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) following the recommendations of the Joint Working Group, designated with advocacy for Veteran's concerns. New Zealand entered the war in 1965 to support the United States and its allies. By the end of the war, 3400 New Zealanders had fought in Vietnam with casualty figures of 37 dead and 187 wounded. A small detachment of RNZAF A-4 Skyhawk pilots were also attached to a U.S Marine Corps A-4 Skyhawk unit. RNZA NZ Army Public Relations pamphlet. 1971: Protests in Dunedin reach the National Party's convention in the centre of the city, resulting in scuffles with police and two arrests. The 2IC for this rotation was RNZIR Major Roy Thomas Victor Taylor. Despite its misgivings, the New Zealand government feared that a failure to contribute to the escalating conflict in Vietnam would compromise its 1951 ANZUS defence pact with the United States and Australia, an alliance on which New Zealand’s long-term security was seen to depend. The conflict and the anti-war movement ushered in a new era of debate about New Zealand's place in the world.  Both RNZIR companies conducted a number of independent, company-level land clearing and mine sweeping operations providing security for Australian and American engineer teams.  One RNZAF member of the NZSMT, Sgt Gordon Watt, was killed by a booby trap in 1970.. The final and sole New Zealand infantry company was integrated with B, C, and D companies of 4 RAR to become 4 RAR/NZ (ANZAC) for the second time. Despite a brief upsurge in protests following and resumption of the air war against North Vietnam in the spring of 1972, the factionalization of the movement and the withdrawal of most U.S. forces led to a decline in protests. This detachment stayed in South Vietnam until February 1971. The discovery of the hospital would prove to be a major defeat for the Communist forces in the area. New Zealand's Vietnam War. RNZAF personnel were numerous in the New Zealand Services Medical Team (NZSMT) and one went on to be part of the subsequent New Zealand Army Training Team (NZATTV.). 'Headquarters Vietnam Force (HQ V Force)' | URL: New Zealand Component (NZ Component) URL: 4th Battalion, Royal Australian Regiment, URL: W3 Company - Service Stories: Operations ROSS and MARSDEN, URL: 'September 1970 - W3 COMPANY ACTIVITIES' URL: 'Unit notes - Vietnam Veterans List - New Zealand Army Training Teams (1 NZATTV, 2 NZATTV and ATTV)' URL: 4 Battalion The Royal Australian Regiment (4RAR/NZ) ANZAC URL: British Empire Medal (BEM) James Michael Benyon, URL: '2NZATTV departure from SVN - 19 Dec 72', URL: Learn how and when to remove this template message, Royal New Zealand Electrical and Mechanical Engineers, 161st (Independent) Reconnaissance Flight, Military history of Australia during the Vietnam War, Military Reenactment Society of New Zealand, "New Zealand's response – NZ and the Vietnam War | NZHistory, New Zealand history online", "We cannot afford to be left too far behind Australia: New Zealand's entry into the Vietnam War in May 1965", https://vietnamwar.govt.nz/resources/unit-notes#hqvforce, http://premierstrategics.com/nzvietnam/nzhqvforce.html, "SSgt Graham Richard Grigg | VietnamWar.govt.nz, New Zealand and the Vietnam War", "Unit notes - Vietnam Veterans List | VietnamWar.govt.nz, New Zealand and the Vietnam War", "(1945–1975) The RNZN in Vietnam – the work of the NZ Services Medical Team", https://vietnamwar.govt.nz/resources/unit-notes, "Maj Robert Ian Thorpe | VietnamWar.govt.nz, New Zealand and the Vietnam War", http://www.diggerhistory.info/pages-conflicts-periods/vietnam/rnzir.htm, "Maj Neville Alan Wallace | VietnamWar.govt.nz, New Zealand and the Vietnam War", https://www.w3vietnam.org.nz/story_4.htm#enemy%20camp, http://www.v4coy.com/operation-marsden.html, http://6rarassociation.com/docs/Long%20Tan%20to%20the%20Nui%20May%20Tao%20-%20%20Report.pdf, "6th Battalion, Royal Australian Regiment", https://www.w3vietnam.org.nz/timeline11.htm, http://www.v4coy.com/operation-with-the-arvn.html, http://www.w3vietnam.org.nz/document/Op_RAVEN_FEB79.pdf, "Maj Roy Thomas Victor Taylor | VietnamWar.govt.nz, New Zealand and the Vietnam War", https://vietnamwar.govt.nz/resources/unit-notes#nztraining, http://vvaavic.org.au/4-battalion-the-royal-australian-regiment-4rar, "Maj Donald Stuart McIver | VietnamWar.govt.nz, New Zealand and the Vietnam War", "Post-war operations – Royal NZ Navy | NZHistory, New Zealand history online", https://vietnamwar.govt.nz/sites/default/files/documents/honours-awards/bennett-bem.pdf, "Cpl Royston Ward Lindsay | VietnamWar.govt.nz, New Zealand and the Vietnam War", "Tpr John William Riches Osborne | VietnamWar.govt.nz, New Zealand and the Vietnam War", "LCpl Alen Laurence Robbie | VietnamWar.govt.nz, New Zealand and the Vietnam War", "Cpl Kevin Ralph Herewini | VietnamWar.govt.nz, New Zealand and the Vietnam War", "Spr Rawhiti Hoera Brown | VietnamWar.govt.nz, New Zealand and the Vietnam War", "Spr Jerry Tauri Barrett | VietnamWar.govt.nz, New Zealand and the Vietnam War", "National Order of the Republic of Vietnam (5th Class) Kenneth Charles Fenton 30202. 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